A.3.6.1-2a Single obstacle detection and avoidance
A.3.6.1 Stationary obstacle and stopping in front of it 1988
Avoiding obstacles is very essential for safe driving; in monocular vision, the easiest clue to distance of an object on the ground in the driving path is to assume a planar surface and to determine range by the lowest coordinate of a set of several (horizontal) edge features belonging to the same object.
Final demo of project “Autonomous Mobile Systems” in Rastatt, 1988:
Stopping in front of a trash-can detected by vision at a speed of ~ 40 km/h.
Dickmanns ED, Christians T (1989). Relative 3-D-state Estimation for Autonomous Visual Guidance of Road Vehicles. In T. Kanade et al (eds): 'Intelligent Autonomous Systems 2', Amsterdam, Vol. 2, pp 683-693; also appeared in: Robotics and Autonomous Systems 7 (1991), Elsevier Science Publ., pp 113-123 pdf
Dickmanns ED (2007). Dynamic Vision for Perception and Control of Motion. Springer-Verlag, (Section 11.2) Content
A.3.6.2 Visually controlled distance keeping to vehicle in front
2a) Single vehicle coming to a stop: In the early 1990’s, radar and vision had a competition as to which approach is the better one for improving safety in obstacle avoidance in dense traffic or even a traffic jam. At that time, the computing power available at acceptable costs did not allow considering vision as economically viable; also, the state of micro-processor technology and image evaluation software did not allow reliable detection of any kind of vehicles under all conditions.
Nonetheless it could be proven that even monocular vision was able to solve the task under normal conditions. The figure to the left shows
The agreement is quite good. First results of visual ‘Stop & Go’ have been demonstrated at the demo Prometheus 1, Torino, 1991.
video 09 VisionBasedStopBehindCar Torino 1991
Thomanek F, Dickmanns D (1992). Obstacle Detection, Tracking and State Estimation for Autonomous Road Vehicle Guidance. IEEE/RSJ Int. Conf. on Intelligent Robots and Systems, IROS) Vol. II, Raleigh, pp. 1399-1406
Schmid M, Thomanek F (1993). Real Time Detection and Recognition of Vehicles for an Autonomous Guidance and Control System. Pattern Recognition and Image Analysis, Vol. 3, No. 3, pp 377-380
Brüdigam C (1994). Intelligente Fahrmanöver sehender autonomer Fahrzeuge in autobahnähnlicher Umgebung. Dissertation, UniBwM / LRT. Kurzfassg
Thomanek F. (1996). Visuelle Erkennung und Zustandsschätzung von mehreren Straßenfahrzeugen zur autonomen Fahrzeugführung. Dissertation, UniBwM / LRT. Kurzfassg