Statistics of the VaMP test-run Munich –
Odense (Nov. 1995, green
route at left)
Speeds driven varied between 60 and 180 km/h
(top right part); usual speeds were between 80 and 130 km/h. At
the top speed driven in the northern plain (Lueneburger Heide, low
traffic density) the safety driver was in charge of early
detection of obstacles far away.
The statistic of distances driven fully
autonomously [lower figure left (a)] shows that even with the
relatively simple feature extraction method used
has been able five
times to drive distances
than 100 km without
interruption (red rectangle lower
stretch was ~ 160 km.
lower right part (b) of the figure shows that lateral
deviations very rarely exceeded ± 0.2 m from the lane
than 400 lane changes have been
triggered by the human safety driver (the rear hemisphere has not
been observed by machine vision in the Power-PC 601-version).
As a result, the following six items have been
recognized as needing improvement in the next-generation system:
1) A wider simultaneous field of view
2) the capability of stereo vision nearby
in a small locatable field of view,
3) a high-resolution component for early
obstacle detection at larger distances in high speed driving
4) more robust detection and tracking of
edge features as well as region-based features and
5) color detection and
interpretation; this is very essential at construction sites
(with yellow lines beside the usual white ones) and for traffic
sign interpretation. In a multi-camera system not all cameras need
to have color sensing.
6) Above all, the main conclusion was that the
next-generation system should have quality evaluation- and
error detection capabilities at all levels, from feature
detection, object recognition and tracking, to situation
assessment and behavior decision.