Dickmanns 1989b, Introduction: Motion vision and pictorial vision are considered to be fairly separate abilities. In the development of biological species on our planet, motion vision is assumed to be phylogenetically older. Also in the development of human infants, motion vision precedes the capability of pictorial vision as psychologists have found out [Yonas 83]. In computer vision, the development went in the opposite direction. The study of static scenes was the starting point for most of the research into vision. This may be attributable to the fact that the interpretation of a static image seems to be easier than dealing with motion. However, when the task is motion understanding the best starting point probably is not the platform developed for static image processing but a basically different one taking a fresh unbiased view on the different type of problem.

Some observations with biological systems: When the problem, in addition, is motion control in the real world, well proven approaches should be exploited. Furthermore, biological systems with millennia of development time may provide some hints on what are functionally promising components for a real-time vision system. For example, contour element detectors and active vision with fixation-type viewing strategies seem to be predominant in high performance biological vision.
   Dynamic scene understanding on a crude level has been a prerequisite to survival for biological systems. It has been practiced utilizing implicit knowledge long before humans developed theories for describing this process. Therefore, unreflected motion control capabilities may yield a sound foundation for technical vision systems for mobile robots too. Similar to what we observe in biology, this can probably be used as a basis for developing higher levels of intelligence on top of these control oriented behavioral competences.
   When humans try to learn movement skills they have to practice in the field of interest and, if possible, watch others having more experience already. Theory alone very often does not help making progress. Observation of one’s motion behavior and memorizing the goal function achieved depending on the control time history applied is a basic mechanism for learning good movement control capabilities.