Dickmanns and Christians 1989 : The integrated spatio-temporal approach to real-time machine vision, which has allowed outstanding performance with moderate computing power, is extended to obstacle recognition and relative spatial state estimation using monocular vision. A modular vision system architecture is discussed centering around features and objects. Experimental results with VaMoRs, a 5-ton test vehicle are given. Stopping in front of obstacles of at least 0.5 m2 cross section has been demonstrated on unmarked two-lane roads at velocities up to 40 km/h.