Terzopoulos and Metaxas 1991 : The authors present a physically based approach to fitting complex three-dimensional shapes using a novel class of dynamic models that can deform both locally and globally. They formulate the deformable superquadrics which incorporate the global shape parameters of a conventional superellipsoid with the local degrees of freedom of a spline. The model's six global deformational degrees of freedom capture gross shape features from visual data and provide salient part descriptors for efficient indexing into a database of stored models. The local deformation parameters reconstruct the details of complex shapes that the global abstraction misses. The equations of motion which govern the behavior of deformable superquadrics make them responsive to externally applied forces. The authors fit models to visual data by transforming the data into forces and simulating the equations of motion through time to adjust the translational, rotational, and deformational degrees of freedom of the models. Model fitting experiments involving 2D monocular image data and 3D range data are presented