Dickmanns 1995b : In the 4-D approach to dynamic machine vision, representations of objects, both with respect to 3-D shape and to motion behavior over time, play a central role. Both differential and integral representations in both space and time have been used from the beginning; however, these specific representations for different subtasks have not been discussed explicitly in depth. Apparently, this has caused some lack of understanding of the general power of this method especially for solving the symbol grounding problem.
Therefore, a more extended treatment is given here and demonstrated at the task of road vehicle guidance. Performance levels achieved in high-speed driving with the new autonomous passenger car VaMP on freeways are discussed.