Dickmanns 1995c : Based on experience in equipping several autonomous road vehicles with dynamic machine vision systems, an arrangement of miniature CCD TV cameras on a pointing platform is proposed which will satisfy all major requirements derived from driving on all types of roads. It is called a Multi-focal active, reflex-like reacting Vehicle Eye (MarVEye). It encompasses the following properties:

1. Large binocular horizontal field of view (e.g. ~ 110°),

2. bi- or multi-focal design for region analysis with different resolutions in parallel,
3. the ability of view fixation on moving objects while its base also is moving, high frequency (> 200 Hz) inertial stabilization,

4. saccadic control of region of interest with stabilization of space perception in the interpretation algorithms;

5. capacity of binocular (trinocular) stereo vision in near range (stereo base similar to the human one);

6. large possible field of view in horizontal range (e.g. 200° with high resolution) such that two of these eyes could cover the full azimuth range, and lateral stereo vision with a large base becomes an option:

7. high dynamic performance (e.g. 20°-saccade in a tenth of a second).

The typical scale of this unit is about 10 cm: Two of these units are proposed for road vehicles, one looking forward, the other one backward; they feed a 4-D perception system capable of assessing the situation around the vehicle up to several hundred meters in range.