Dickmanns 1997a/1998 : A survey is given on two decades of developments in the field, encompassing an increase in computing power by four orders of magnitude. The ‘4-D approach’ integrating expectation-based methods from systems dynamics and control engineering with methods from Al has allowed to create vehicles with unprecedented capabilities in the technical realm: Autonomous road vehicle guidance in public traffic on freeways at speeds beyond 130 km/h, on-board-autonomous landing approaches of aircraft, and landmark navigation for AGV’s, for road vehicles including turn-offs onto cross-roads, and for helicopters in low-level flight (real-time, hardware-in-the-loop simulations in the latter case).