Dickmanns 1997b : A survey is given on two decades of development in the field of dynamic machine vision for vehicle control. The '4-D approach' developed integrates expectation-based methods from systems dynamics and control engineering with methods from AI. Dynamic vision is considered to be an animation process exploiting background knowledge about dynamical systems while analyzing image sequences and inertial measurement data simultaneously; this time oriented approach has allowed to create vehicles with unprecedented capabilities in the technical realm: Autonomous road vehicle guidance in public traffic on freeways at speeds beyond 130 km/h, on-board-autonomous landing approaches of aircraft, and landmark navigation for AGV's as well as for road vehicles including turn-offs onto cross-roads.