Hamilton et al. 2001 : The advancement in CMOS imaging sensors has enabled low-cost and high quality cameras that are making their way into future automobiles. Vision sensors can be deployed in a car to perform a variety of functions, including driver monitoring for workload management; passenger monitoring for intelligent airbag deployment; pedestrian and object recognition for pre-crash sensing; lane marker and roadway tracking for lane/roadway departure warnings; and general scene and object recognition to improve ACC/FCW/CA (adaptive cruise control / forward collision warning / collision avoidance) system robustness through sensor fusion. Possible system implementation and key performance requirements for vision sensors in these applications are discussed. Of particular interest is the integrated safety system (ISS) launched by Delphi. The vision is to equip the vehicle with adaptive cruise control, collision avoidance, pre-crash sensing etc. as a complete system. In so doing, the sensor information is shared among the various subsystems and the overall system will have performance superior to the sum of individual systems. For FCW, CA, and ACC functions to perform properly, requires a suite of path algorithms using radar and conventional on-board sensor information. For automotive applications, it is critical that a relatively high dynamic range camera be used to handle the real world scenes encountered in normal driving.