Lindner et al. 2004 : In this paper a general system for real-time detection and recognition of traffic signals is proposed. The key sensor is a camera installed in a moving vehicle. The software system consists of three main modules: detection, tracking, and sample-based classification. Additional sensor information, such as vehicle data, GPS, and enhanced digital maps, or a second camera for stereo vision, are used to enhance the performance and robustness of the system. Since the detection step is the most critical one, different detection schemes are compared. They are based on color, shape, texture, and complete-object classification. The color system, with a high dynamic range camera and precise location information of the vehicle and the searched traffic signals, offers valuable and reliable help in directing the driver's attention to traffic signals and, thus, can reduce red-light running accidents.