M.3.5 Visualization of feedback loops

(abstract functional dependencies in 4-D approach)

The following graph is intended to show the various closed-loop interactions in the overall system across subsystem boundaries; efficiency is achieved when knowledge derived somewhere is made available to all other subsystems that may gain from it:



  • Big outer loop: Interaction between ‘mental’ (cognitive) and physical components of the system (at bottom).

  • Performance of image feature extraction and object recognition are improved by state- and measurement predictions;

  • Feedback of predicted states and comparison with measured states as well as monitoring of time delays generates a ‘perceived presence’;

  • Situation assessment becomes more coherent by providing state predictions (→ expectations); on this level, longer term predictions are possible, based on knowledge about decision making and maneuvers.

References

Dickmanns ED (1998). Expectation-based, Multi-focal, Saccadic Vision for Perceiving Dynamic Scenes (EMS-Vision). In C. Freska (ed.): Proc. in Artificial Intelligence, Vol. 8, pp 47-54

Gregor, R, Lützeler, M, Pellkofer, M, Siedersberger, KH, Dickmanns, ED (2000). EMS-Vision: A Perceptual System for Autonomous Vehicles. Proc. Int. Symposium on Intelligent Vehicles (IV’2000), Dearborn, (MI), Oct. 4-5

Gregor, R. and Dickmanns, E.D (2000). EMS-Vision: Mission Performance on Road Networks. Proc. Int. Symp. on Intelligent Vehicles (IV’2000), Dearborn, (MI), Oct. 4-5, 2000

Hofmann, U.; Rieder, A. and Dickmanns, E.D (2000). EMS-Vision: Application to Hybrid Adaptive Cruise Control. Proc. Int. Symp. on Intelligent Vehicles (IV’2000), Dearborn, (MI), Oct. 4-5, 2000

Lützeler M, Dickmanns ED (2000). EMS-Vision: Recognition of Intersections on Unmarked Road Networks. Proc. Int. Symp. on Intelligent Vehicles (IV’2000), Dearborn, (MI) , Oct. 4-5, 2000

Maurer M: Knowledge Representation for Flexible Automation of Land Vehicles. Proc. Int. Symp. on Intelligent Vehicles (IV’2000), Dearborn, (MI), Oct. 4-5

Pellkofer M, Dickmanns, ED (2000). EMS-Vision: Gaze Control in Autonomous Vehicles. Proc. Int. Symp. on Intelligent Vehicles (IV’2000), Dearborn, (MI), Oct. 4-5

Maurer M (2000). Flexible Automatisierung von Strassenfahrzeugen mit Rechnersehen. Dissertation, UniBwM / LRT

Gregor R, Lützeler M, Pellkofer M, Siedersberger KH, Dickmanns ED (2001). A Vision System for Autonomous Ground Vehicles with a Wide Range of Maneuvering Capabilities. Proc. ICVS, Vancouver

Gregor R, Lützeler M, Dickmanns ED (2001). EMS-Vision: Combining on- and off-road driving. Proc. SPIE Conf. on Unmanned Ground Vehicle Technology III, AeroSense ‘01, Orlando (FL)

Pellkofer M, Lützeler M, Dickmanns ED (2001). Interaction of Perception and Gaze Control in Autonomous Vehicles. Proc. SPIE: Intelligent Robots and Computer Vision XX; Newton, USA, pp 1-12

Pellkofer M, Lützeler M, Dickmanns ED (2001).  Vertebrate-type perception and gaze control for road vehicles. Proc. Int. Symp. on Robotics Research, Lorne, Australia

Siedersberger KH, Pellkofer M, Lützeler M, Dickmanns ED, Rieder A, Mandelbaum R, Bogoni I (2001).  Combining EMS-Vision and Horopter Stereo for Obstacle Avoidance of Autonomous Vehicles. Proc. ICVS, Vancouver

Dickmanns ED (2002). Expectation-based, Multi-focal, Saccadic (EMS) Vision for Ground Vehicle Guidance. Control Engineering Practice 10, pp.907 - 915

Gregor R, Lützeler M, Pellkofer M, Siedersberger KH, Dickmanns ED (2002). EMS-Vision: A Perceptual System for Autonomous Vehicles. IEEE Trans. on Intelligent Transportation Systems, Vol.3, No.1, pp. 48 – 59

Pellkofer M, Dickmanns ED (2002). Behavior Decision in Autonomous Vehicles. Proc. of the Int. Symp. on ‚Intell. Veh.‘02‘, Versailles

Pellkofer M, Lützeler M, Dickmanns ED (2003). Vertebrate-type perception and gaze control for road vehicles. In: Jarvis RA, Zelinski A (2003) Robotics Research, The Tenth International Symposium. Springer Verlag, pp.271-288

Dickmanns E.D (2003). A General Cognitive System Architecture Based on Dynamic Vision for Motion Control. Proc. The 7th World Multi Conference on Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics, (SCI) July 2003, Orlando

Pellkofer M, Hofmann U, Dickmanns ED (2003). Autonomous cross-country driving using active vision. SPIE Conf. 5267, Intelligent Robots and Computer Vision XXI: Algorithms, Techniques, and Active Vision. Photonics East, Providence, Rhode Island

Pellkofer M (2003). Verhaltensentscheidung für autonome Fahrzeuge mit Blickrichtungssteuerung. Dissertation, UniBwM / LRT

Siedersberger KH (2004). Komponenten zur automatischen Fahrzeugführung in sehenden (semi-) autonomen Fahrzeugen. Dissertation, UniBwM / LRT

Hofmann U (2004). Zur visuellen Umfeldwahrnehmung autonomer Fahrzeuge. Dissertation, UniBwM / LRT

Dickmanns ED (2007). Dynamic Vision for Perception and Control of Motion. Springer-Verlag, London