X.4 Table of „Firsts“ in 'Dynamic machine vision / Visual guidance of autonomous vehicles'

year

Task performed

link

1982

1984

 

 1986

1986

 

Pole balancing with an electro-cart, 0.5 m < Lrod < 2 m);

First HIL-simulated road vehicle guidance in real-time with image evaluation hardware ‚BVV1‘ running at 10 Hz.

Docking of an air cushion vehicle (satellite-model with 3 dof);

Edge-based fully autonomous longitudinal and lateral guidance of  VaMoRs in the skidpan of DB-AG, Stuttgart.

A.1 Pole balancing

H.4.1 HIL-Sim RoadVehGuidance

 

A.2 Satellite model plant

A.3.2 Skidpan demo to Daimler-Benz AG 1986

 

1987

1988

1990

1991

1991

High-speed driving on empty Autobahn (max. 96 km/h; >20 km)

Stop in front of stationary obstacle from 40 km/h

Recognition of horizontal and vertical road curvature

Convoy-driving (Stop and Go)

Visual landing approach: fully autonomous estimation of relative pose of aircraft to runway in real flight with Do-128 in Brunswick

video VaMoRs AB-Dingolf1987

A.3.6.1 Single obstacle detection and avoidance

A.3.5 Perception of horizontal and vertical curvature

video Torino1991VITA StopBehCar

A.5 Aircraft landing approach

1992

1992

1993

1994

1994

 

 

1995

VaMoRs & VITA drive fully autonomously in public Autobahn traffic

Recognition of crossroads and turning off (first exp. results)

Grasp a free floating object in Space: Spacelab D2, ROTEX

Bi-focal saccadic vision for sensing road environments

Autonomous driving in 3-lane French Autoroute-traffic (Paris- Senlis), speeds up to 130 km/h; parallel recognition of relative state of up to 10 other vehicles (in front & rear); autonomous decision for lane change: cars VaMP, VITA 2 (Daimler-Benz AG)

Long distance test Odense (longitudinal + lateral  > 1600km)

 

A.3.7 Turning off onto an unknown crossroad

A.7 Vision-guided grasping in Space

video GazeControlTrafficSignSaccade1995

A.3.6.2b Multiple obstacle detection and avoidance

 

A.3.8 Long distance drive VaMP 1995

1997

1999

2000

 

2002

2004

HIL – simulation: Landmark navigation for helicopter missions

50 km/h with tracked vehicle on dirt roads

Stop in front of ditch (60 cm wide) from speeds up to 16 km/h on grass surface (stereo with VFE of Sarnoff - PVT)

Mission performance including stereo vision and ditch avoidance: with stereo system VFE 200 of Sarnoff – PVT;

with ARCADIA-board of Sarnoff – PVT integrated in EMS-vision system].

A.6 Helicopter with the sense of vision

video Wiesel2 with EMS-vision

A.3.9 Mixed on-off-road mission performance 2003

 

video EMS-On-OffroadDriving2003VaMoRs