X.4 Table of „Firsts“ in 'Dynamic machine vision / Visual guidance of autonomous vehicles'

Year

Task performed

Link

1982

Pole balancing with an electro-cart, 0.5 m < Lrod < 2 m)

A.1 Pole balancing

1984

First HIL-simulated road vehicle guidance in real-time with image evaluation hardware ‚BVV1‘ running at 10 Hz

H.4.1 HIL-Sim RoadVehGuidance

1986

Docking of an air cushion vehicle (satellite-model with 3 dof);

A.2 Satellite model plant

1986

Edge-based fully autonomous longitudinal and lateral guidance of  VaMoRs in the skidpan of DB-AG, Stuttgart.

A.3.2 Skidpan demo to Daimler-Benz AG 1986

1987

High-speed driving on empty Autobahn (max. 96 km/h; >20 km)

video VaMoRs AB-Dingolf1987

1988

Various real-time demonstrations to a BBC-film-team

BBC-Film in ‘Tomorrow’s World

“Self-Drive Van”

1988

Stop in front of stationary obstacle from 40 km/h

A.3.6.1 Single obstacle detection and avoidance

1990

Recognition of horizontal and vertical road curvature

A.3.5 Perception of horizontal and vertical curvature

1991

Convoy-driving (Stop and Go)

video Torino1991VITA StopBehCar

1991

Visual landing approach: fully autonomous estimation of relative pose of aircraft to runway in real flight with Do-128 in Brunswick

A.5 Aircraft landing approach

1992

VaMoRs & VITA drive fully autonomously in public Autobahn traffic

 

1992

Recognition of crossroads and turning off (first exp. results)

A.3.7 Turning off onto an unknown crossroad

1993

Grasp a free floating object in Space: Spacelab D2, ROTEX

A.7 Vision-guided grasping in Space

1994

Bi-focal saccadic vision for sensing road environments

video GazeControlTrafficSignSaccade1995

1994

Autonomous driving in 3-lane French Autoroute-traffic (Paris- Senlis), speeds up to 130 km/h; parallel recognition of relative state of up to 10 other vehicles (in front & rear); autonomous decision for lane change: cars VaMP, VITA 2 (Daimler-Benz AG)

A.3.6.2b Multiple obstacle detection and avoidance

Video ‘Autonomous two-fold lane change

1995

Long distance test Odense (longitudinal + lateral  > 1600km)

A.3.8 Long distance drive VaMP 1995

1997

HIL – simulation: Landmark navigation for helicopter missions

A.6 Helicopter with the sense of vision

1999

50 km/h with tracked vehicle on dirt roads

video Wiesel2 with EMS-vision

2000

Stop in front of ditch (60 cm wide) from speeds up to 16 km/h on grass surface (stereo with VFE of Sarnoff - PVT)

Video Detection and avoidance of a ditch

(negative obstacle)

 

video EMS-On-OffroadDriving2001VaMoRs

(first full-frame, full video-rate stereo vision)

2002

Mission performance including stereo vision and ditch avoidance: with stereo system VFE 200 of Sarnoff – PVT;

2004

with ARCADIA-board of Sarnoff – PVT integrated in EMS-vision system.