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H.1.3 EMS vision system on COTS – PC hardware (3rd generation)

In the late 1990’s, the development of ‘general-purpose-processors’ and high-speed communication networks for PC had reached a state that for the first time allowed full-frame-rate image sequence processing with components right off the shelf. Intel Pentium-class dual-processor PC’s with 0.3 to 1 GHz clock rate have been chosen together with the ‘Scalable Coherent Interface’ – system (SCI) for communication among the PC.

Four Dual-PC Pentium_2, three for image evaluation:

  • one for the two divergent wide-angle cameras (b/w);
  • one for color camera with mild tele-lens;
  • one for highly sensitive b/w-camera with strong tele-lens.

‘Behavior PC’ with the following functions:

  • Human Interface (HMI) to all PC in system (EPC),
  • High-level Behavior Decision for Mission Performance (CD & MP), for Gaze and Attention (BDGA), and for Locomotion (BDL)
  • Interface to the real-time sub-systems for
  • Gaze Control (GC, 2-axes platform) and
  • Vehicle Control (VC, to all sensors and actuators of the autonomous vehicle)
  • Receiving GPS-signals

System integration with COTS-PC:

  • Synchronization and data exchange through SCI-network;
  • copy of the subsystem for Dynamic Knowledge Representation (DKR) updated on each PC in each cycle.
  • Each PC ran independently under the operating system NT to minimize interferences; software-synchronization via temporal models to within a few ms was considered sufficient for the application.
  • Hard real-time processing was done with the two subsystems as interfaces to real-world sensors and actuators.
  • GPS- frequency of 1 Hz sufficient for navigation.


Gregor R, Lützeler M, Pellkofer M, Siedersberger KH, Dickmanns ED (2000). EMS-Vision: A Perceptual System for Autonomous Vehicles. Proc. Int. Symposium on Intelligent Vehicles (IV’2000), Dearborn, (MI). pdf

Maurer M (2000). Knowledge Representation for Flexible Automation of Land Vehicles. Proc. Int. Symp. on Intelligent Vehicles (IV’2000), Dearborn, (MI)

Pellkofer M, Dickmanns ED (2000). EMS-Vision: Gaze Control in Autonomous Vehicles. Proc. Int. Symp. on Intelligent Vehicles (IV’2000), Dearborn, (MI). pdf

Rieder A (2000). Fahrzeuge sehen – Multisensorielle Fahrzeugerkennung in einem verteilten Rechnersystem für autonome Fahrzeuge. Dissertation, UniBwM / LRT. Kurzfassung

Siedersberger KH (2004). Komponenten zur automatischen Fahrzeugführung in sehenden (semi-) autonomen Fahrzeugen. Dissertation, UniBwM / LRT, Kurzfassung