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X.1 Achievements with VaMoRs

Demonstration to Daimler-Benz Research 1986 in Stuttgart-skidpan

Longitudinal & lateral guidance with lateral acceleration feedback;
speed range from 0 to 36 km/h (10 m/s), autonomous speed reduction to Vmax,curve = 7 m/s circling speed with radius ~ 50 m, yielding ~ 0.1 g lateral acceleration.

Video – 1986 VaMoRs in skidpan DBAG-Stuttgart

Road running since 1986; speed record 1987: 96 km/h

  • Curvature-based road perception; lateral ego-state in road or lane.
  • Look-ahead ranges compensate delay times in vision.

Video – VaMoRsAutobahn Dingolfing 1987



Stop in front of stationary obstacle from 40 km/h

  • Monocular motion stereo, an integral part of the 4-D approach; 1988
  • view fixation by alternate centering of gaze direction horizontally and vertically on the ~ vertical and ~ horizontal centers of edge features.

A.3.6.1-2a Single obstacle detection and avoidance

Video – VaMoRs Stat.Obstacle Rastatt 1988

A.3.5 Perception of horizontal and vertical curvature

  • Vertical profile above horizontal curve;
  • self-occlusion on cusps may occur.

Video – 1990 DissMy.mp4 (final part)

Convoy-driving by dynamic vision (since 1991)

  • Monocular motion stereo with flat ground assumption,
  • vehicle width initially estimated (parameter adaptation);
  • then fixed for better range estimation.

Video – GroundVehiclesLearnToSee UBM1986-95


Driving on Unsealed roads (since 1992)

Can road recognition by edge elements (pieced together according to road models based on piecewise continuous clothoids moved with the vehicle) be sufficient for recognizing dirt roads without lane or boundary markings? The figure shows typical dirt road running through a park.

A.3.7 Turning off onto an unknown crossroad

  • Right turn on taxiway with lane markings, 1996
  • left turn on dirt road in Pfullendorf test site, 2001 (video above)

Video – 2001 EMS-VaMoRs Trinoc. TurnLeft.mp4

Stop in front of a ditch on grass surface, 2000;

A.3.6.4d Detection and recognition of a ditch

  • EMS-vision with horopter stereo (ACADIA-board, Sarnoff, SRI),
  • self-occlusion of negative obstacle.

Video 26 – Detect ditch, Stop VaMoRs 2000

Mission performance and ditch avoidance, 2003

  • On- and off-road driving by vision and GPS waypoints;
  • turning off onto a cross road,
  • avoid unknown negative obstacles (ditch)

Video – VaMoRs/EMS On-Off-RoadMissionPerform 2003