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X.4 Table of „Firsts“ in ‚Dynamic machine vision / Visual guidance of autonomous vehicles‘


YearTask performedLink
1982Pole balancing with an electro-cart, 0.5 m < Lrod < 2 m)

A.1 Pole balancing

Video 1984 Pole Balancing with Perturbations.mp4

1984First HIL-simulated road vehicle guidance in real-time with image evaluation hardware ‚BVV1‘ running at 10 HzH.4.1 HIL-Sim RoadVehGuidance
1986Docking of an air cushion vehicle (satellite-model with 3 dof);

A.2 Satellite model plant

Video – 1987 Satellite Docking air cushion veh.mp4

1986Edge-based fully autonomous longitudinal and lateral guidance of  VaMoRs in the skidpan of DB-AG, Stuttgart.A.3.2 Skidpan demo to Daimler-Benz AG 1986
1987High-speed driving on empty Autobahn (max. 96 km/h; >20 km)Video 1987 VaMoRs AB-Dingolfing.mp4
1988Various real-time demonstrations to a BBC-film-teamBBC-Film in ‘Tomorrow’s World
Video – BBC Self Drive Van.mp4
1988Stop in front of stationary obstacle from 40 km/hA.3.6.1 Single obstacle detection and avoidance
1990Recognition of horizontal and vertical road curvatureA.3.5 Perception of horizontal and vertical curvature
1991Convoy-driving (Stop and Go)Video Torino1991VITA StopBehCar
1991Visual landing approach: fully autonomous estimation of relative pose of aircraft to runway in real flight with Do-128 in BrunswickA.5 Aircraft landing approach
1992VaMoRs & VITA drive fully autonomously in public Autobahn traffic 
1992Recognition of crossroads and turning off (first exp. results)A.3.7 Turning off onto an unknown crossroad
1993Grasp a free floating object in Space: Spacelab D2, ROTEXA.7 Vision-guided grasping in Space
1994Bi-focal saccadic vision for sensing road environmentsVideo GazeControlTrafficSignSaccade1994
1994Autonomous driving in 3-lane French Autoroute-traffic (Paris- Senlis), speeds up to 130 km/h; parallel recognition of relative state of up to 10 other vehicles (in front & rear); autonomous decision for lane change: cars VaMP, VITA 2 (Daimler-Benz AG)

A.3.6.2b Multiple obstacle detection and avoidance

Video Autonomous two-fold lane change

1995Long distance test Odense (longitudinal + lateral  > 1600km)A.3.8 Long distance drive VaMP 1995
1997HIL – simulation: Landmark navigation for helicopter missionsA.6 Helicopter with the sense of vision
2000Stop in front of ditch (60 cm wide) from speeds up to 16 km/h on grass surface (stereo with VFE of Sarnoff – PVT; negative obstacle)Video – Detect ditch, Stop VaMoRs 2000
2001-2003Mission performance including stereo vision and ditch avoidance: with stereo system VFE 200 of Sarnoff – PVT;
with ARCADIA-board of Sarnoff –PVT integrated in EMS-vision system.
Video EMS-On-OffroadDrivingVaMoRs
(first full-frame, full video-rate stereo vision)