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H.2.4 Sedan car VaMP 1993 – 2004

Phase a) PROMETHEUS 1993 – 1995

H.1.2 Integrated Transputer Systems

Standard Mercedes 500 SEL (1992, W-140):

  • Dimensions L, W, H: 5.21 m, 1.89 m, 1.5 m
  • Axle distance a: 3.14 m
  • vehicle mass: ~ 2490 kg
  • engine power: 240 KW
  • max. speed: 250 km/h
  • el. power generator: 12 V, 1.4 KW (main engine)
  • addit. power generator: 24 V, ~ 2 KW (main engine).

Installations for autonomous operation:

Modified. hydraulic brake force amplification: ~ 100 bar;

brushless torque motor for steer actuation, on axle of steering wheel;

2 gaze control platforms with 2 finger-cameras.

Personnel required:

  • front left: safety driver (always in charge)
  • rear left: computer system operator
  • Front right seat available for a guest.

The computer system encompassed up to 60 transputers plus 1 PC as human interface.

a. Cockpit with front cameras in front of rear-view mirror (center top of windscreen); monitor and keyboard in front of right seat.

b. Rear view of items 6 and 7 above (in trunk)

c. work station of computer system operator.


Phase b) CLEOPATRA-project 1994 – 1996

  • Expernal appearance unchanged
  • Radar sensor added for redundant object detection & tracking in ‘Hybrid Adaptive Cruise Control’ (HACC)

  • Only front camera set active with Power-PC components.
  • Transputers for image sequence processing replaced by Power-PC components (601)
  • Image evaluation rate doubled to 25 Hz.

For results see A.3.8 LongDistanceDrive VaMP 1995


Phase c) EMS – vision 1997 – 2004

Radar sensor added for redundant object detection & tracking in ‘Hybrid Adaptive Cruise Control’ (HACC)

Fusion of radar & higher-resolution image evaluation:

  • Radar sensor (77 GHz), all-weather capability, range from 2 up to 130 m; relatively many false alarms and poor lateral resolution.
  • Cameras with 1 mrad / pixel and 0.25 mrad / pixel lateral resolution yield at L = 100 m look-ahead range: 10 resp. 2.5 cm lateral extension per pixel.
  • Dual-Pentium COTS-PC for joint interpretation.

Video – Hybrid Adaptive Cruise Control VaMP 2000


Behringer R (1994). Road Recognition from Multifocal Vision. In Masaki (ed.): Proc. of Int. Symp. on Intell. Veh. ’94, Paris, pp 302-7

v Holt V (1994). Tracking and Classification of Overtaking Vehicles on Autobahnen. Proc. of Int. Symp. on Intelligent Vehicles ’94, Paris, pp 314-319

Maurer M, Behringer R, Dickmanns D, Hildebrandt T, Thomanek F, Schiehlen J, Dick­manns ED (1994). VaMoRs-P An Advanced Platform for Visual Autonomous Road Vehicle Guidance. SPIE Conference ‚Mobile Robots IX‘, pp 239-248

Thomanek F, Dickmanns ED, Dickmanns D (1994). Multiple Object Recognition and Scene Interpretation for Autonomous Road Vehicle Guidance. In Masaki (ed): Proc. of Int. Symp. on Intelligent Vehicles ’94, Paris, pp 231-236 Abstract

Thomanek F, Dickmanns ED (1995). Autonomous Road Vehicle Guidance in Normal Traffic. Proc. ACCV ’95, Singapore

Thomanek F (1996). Visuelle Erkennung und Zustandsschätzung von mehreren Straßenfahrzeugen zur autonomen Fahrzeugführung. Dissertation, UniBwM / LRT. Kurzfassung

Hofmann U, Rieder A, Dickmanns ED (2000). EMS-Vision: Application to Hybrid Adaptive Cruise Control. Proc. Int. Symp. on Intelligent Vehicles (IV’2000), Dearborn (MI) pdf

Dickmanns ED (2007). Dynamic Vision for Perception and Control of Motion. Springer-Verlag, (Sections 9.2 and 11.3) Content